Compton, California

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City of Compton
City
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The Martin Luther King Monument in front of the Compton City Hall and the Superior Court building. The monument is the logo for the city and is featured on signage.
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Seal
Nickname(s): CPT, The Hub City, The Shopping City
Motto: Birthing a New Compton
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Location of Compton in Los Angeles County, California
Coordinates: 33°53′48″N 118°13′30″W / 33.89667°N 118.22500°W / 33.89667; -118.22500Coordinates: 33°53′48″N 118°13′30″W / 33.89667°N 118.22500°W / 33.89667; -118.22500
Country Click to View Image United States of America
State Click to View Image California
County Click to View Image Los Angeles
Incorporated May 11, 1888
Government
 • Type Council-Manager
 • City council[1] Mayor: Aja Brown
Janna Zurita
Isaac Galvan
Yvonne Arceneaux
Dr. Willie O Jones
 • City Manager G. Harold Duffey
 • City Attorney Craig J. Cornwell
 • City Treasurer Douglas Sanders
 • City Clerk Alita Godwin
Area[2]
 • Total 10.116 sq mi (26.202 km2)
 • Land 10.012 sq mi (25.932 km2)
 • Water 0.104 sq mi (0.270 km2)  1.03%
Elevation 60–79 ft (18–24 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 96,455
 • Density 9,500/sq mi (3,700/km2)
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP codes 90220-90224
Area code(s) 310/424
FIPS code 06-15044
GNIS feature ID 1652689
Website www.comptoncity.org

Compton is a city in southern Los Angeles County, California, United States,[3] situated south of downtown Los Angeles. The city of Compton is one of the oldest cities in the county and on May 11, 1888, was the eighth city to incorporate. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 96,455.[4] It is known as the "Hub City" due to its geographic centrality in Los Angeles County.[3] Neighborhoods in Compton include Sunny Cove, Leland, Downtown Compton, and Richland Farms. The city is generally a working class city with some middle-class neighborhoods and is home to a relatively young community, at an average 25 years of age, compared to the American median age of 35.

Since the 1980s, the city of Compton has become well known in American popular culture due to many hip hop groups and rappers originating from the community, such as the seminal gangsta rap group N.W.A, best known for their debut album, Straight Outta Compton. The city of Compton as well as southern Los Angeles County in general is notorious for its heavy concentration of gangs and gang violence, such as the Bloods, the Crips, and Sureños, which all originated in the Los Angeles area.

History

In 1784, the Spanish Crown deeded a tract of over 75,000 acres (300 km2) to Juan Jose Dominguez in this area. The tract was named Rancho San Pedro. Dominguez's name was later applied to the Dominguez Hills community south of Compton. The tree that marked the original northern boundary of the rancho still stands at the corner of Poppy and Short streets.[citation needed]. The rancho was sub-divided and parcels were sold within the Californios of Alta California until the lands were ceded after the Mexican-American war in 1848. American immigrants acquired most of the rancho lands after 1848.[how?]

In 1867, Griffith Dickenson Compton led a group of thirty pioneers to the area. These families had traveled by wagon train south from Stockton, California in search of ways to earn a living other than in the rapid exhaustion of gold fields. Originally named Gibsonville, after one of the tract owners, it was later called Comptonville. However, to avoid confusion with the Comptonville located in Yuba County, the name was shortened to Compton.[3] Compton's earliest settlers were faced with terrible hardships as they farmed the land in bleak weather to get by with just the barest subsistence. The weather continued to be harsh, rainy and cold, and fuel was difficult to find. To gather firewood it was necessary to travel to mountains close to Pasadena. The round trip took almost a week. Many in the Compton party wanted to relocate to a friendlier climate and settle down. But there were only two general stores within traveling distance, one in the pueblo of Los Angeles, the other in Wilmington, so they eventually made the decision to stay put.[3]

By 1887, the settlers realized it was time to make improvements to the local government. A series of town meetings were held to discuss incorporation of their little town. Griffith D. Compton donated his land to incorporate and create the city of Compton in 1889, but he did stipulate that a certain acreage be zoned solely for agriculture and named Richland Farms [5] In January 1888, they forwarded a petition supporting the incorporation of Compton to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, who in turn forwarded the petition to the State Legislature. On May 11, 1888 the city of Compton was incorporated, it had a total population of 500 people. The first City Council meeting was held on May 14, 1888.[3]

The ample residential lots of Richland Farms gave residents enough space to raise a family, and food to feed them, along with building a barn, and caring for livestock. The farms attracted the black families who had begun migrating from the rural South in the 1950s, there they found their 'home away from home' in this small community. Compton couldn't support large-scale agricultural business, but it did give the residents the opportunity to work the land for their families and for the welfare of the new community.[5]

The 1920s saw the opening of the Compton Airport. Compton Junior College was founded and city officials moved to a new City Hall on Alameda Street.[3] On March 10, 1933, a devastating earthquake caused many casualties, schools were destroyed and there was major damage to the central business district.[3] While it would eventually be home to a large number of African Americans, in 1930 there was only one black resident.[6] In the late 1940s, middle class African-Americans began moving into the area, mostly on the west side. Compton grew quickly in the 1950s. One reason for this was Compton was close to Watts, where there was an established community of African Americans. The eastern side of the city was predominately white until the 1970s. Despite being located in the middle of a major metropolitan area, thanks to the legacy of Griffith D. Compton, there still remains one small pocket of agriculture from its earliest years.[5]

During the 1950s and 1960s, after the Supreme Court declared all racially exclusive housing covenants (title deeds) unconstitutional in the case Shelley v. Kraemer, the first African American families moved to the area.[7] Compton's growing African American population was still largely ignored and neglected by the city's elected officials. Centennial High School was finally built to accommodate a burgeoning student population.[7] At one time, the City Council even discussed dismantling the Compton Police Department in favor of the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department in an attempt to exclude blacks from law enforcement jobs. This slowly began to change when, in 1958, the first African-American ran for a City Council seat. However, it would be another three years before an African-American would actually be elected to the City Council in 1961.[7]

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Aerial view of Compton, 1920

Douglas Dollarhide made history in Compton in 1969 when he became California's first African-American mayor of a metropolitan city.[7] Two African-Americans and one Mexican-American were also elected to the local school board.[7] Four years later, in 1973, Doris A. Davis defeated Dollarhide's bid for re-election to become the first African-American female mayor of a metropolitan city in the United States. By the early 1970s, the city had one of the largest concentrations of African-Americans in the country with over ninety percent.[citation needed] In 2013, Aja Brown made history as Compton's youngest mayor to ever be elected, at age 31.

For many years, Compton was a much sought after neighborhood for the black middle class of Los Angeles. Now, only some areas of Compton are still middle class communities. This past affluence is reflected in the area's appearance—Compton's streets are lined with relatively spacious and attractive single family houses. However, several factors have contributed to Compton's decline. One of the most significant factors was a steady erosion of its tax base. First, whites who fled to the newly incorporated cities of Artesia, Bellflower, Cerritos, Paramount and Norwalk in the late 1950s. These nearby communities remained largely white early on despite integration.[8] This move was even further precipitated after the Watts Riots in 1965 and 1992 Los Angeles riots.[9]

Soon, middle class blacks also found other areas more attractive to them. Some were unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County such as Ladera Heights, View Park and Windsor Hills; and others were cities such as Inglewood and, particularly, Carson. The latter was significant because it had successfully thwarted attempts at annexation by neighboring Compton. The city of Carson opted instead for incorporation in 1968, which is notable because its black population was actually more affluent than its white population. As a newer city, it also offered more favorable tax rates and lower crime.[10]

Culture

Some episodes of the sitcom The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air took place in Compton because Will Smith's friend, Jazz, lived there.[11] Many rap artists' careers started in Compton, including N.W.A., Eazy-E, MC Ren, DJ Quik, The Game, Kendrick Lamar, Dr. Dre,Tyga and Compton's Most Wanted. In their lyrics, they rap about the streets and their lives in Compton and the areas nearby. Many well-known NBA players attended high school in the city as well. DeMar DeRozan attended Compton High School, and Tayshaun Prince, Tyson Chandler, Brandon Jennings, Cedric Ceballos, and the late Dennis Johnson attended Dominguez High. Actor/comedian Paul Rodriguez Sr. also attended Dominguez High.[12]

Although Compton was formerly thought of as a primarily black community, this has greatly changed over the years and now Latinos are the largest ethnic group in the city. A possible reason for this misconception is, despite the shift in population, many African American professional athletes and rappers are originally from Compton. Also, African Americans continue to dominate local politics, holding most elected positions in the city. Although an inner suburb of Los Angeles, Compton has seen an increase of middle-class residents in the last few years, due to its affordable housing despite the portrayals of Compton in the media, which are typically exaggerated. With the influx of immigrants and the demographic shift in ethnic population, it was after the 2000 U.S. Census Latinos were recognized as the majority.[13]

Compton has a growing Pacific Islander, Filipino, and Vietnamese community. West Compton and unincorporated Willowbrook have more middle class African Americans than the central city (west of Alameda St.) and unincorporated East Compton, the latter of which has a higher number of Hispanics and working-class African Americans. Lower-income subsections on Compton Boulevard have many businesses owned by Latinos.

Compton has been referenced on numerous occasions in gang affiliation, gangsta rap and g-funk songs, especially in the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s, and so has attained an association not only with gang violence and crime, but with hip hop music as well. The city is known as the home of many famous rappers. (see list List of people from Compton, California#Arts and entertainment) Compton has evolved into a younger community, the median age of people living in Compton, was 25 at the time of the last full census survey; the United States average at the time was 35.3.[14]

Compton is home to the Compton Cricket Club, the only all American-born exhibition cricket team. Its founder, Ted Hayes, said, "The aim of playing cricket is to teach people how to respect themselves and respect authority so they stop killing each other."[15]

Government and infrastructure

City government

After Lionel Cade, an accountant, assumed the mayor's office in 1977, one of the first orders of business was to conduct an audit of the city's finances. It was discovered that the city was $2 million in debt. The administration was able to eliminate the huge deficit in one year by making cuts in every department. It also aggressively sought federal funding to help pay for essential services, which was at least partially effective. However, with the passage of the property tax cutting initiative Proposition 13 by California voters, Compton was one of the cities hardest hit, since it had already eliminated most of the fat from its budget.[16]

County, state and federal representation

The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the South Health Center in Watts, Los Angeles, serving Compton.[17]

In the state legislature Compton is located in the 35th Senate District, represented by Democrat Roderick Wright, and in the 64thAssembly District, represented by Democrat Isadore Hall, III. Federally, Compton is located in California's 44th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of D +29 and is represented by Democrat Janice Hahn.

The United States Postal Service operates the Compton Post Office at 701 South Santa Fe Avenue[18] the Hub City Post Office at 101 South Willowbrook Avenue,[19] and the Fashion Square Post Office at 2100 North Long Beach Boulevard.[20]

LASD

The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department operates the Compton Station in Compton.[21] When the LASD replaced the Compton Police Department in 2000, they increased patrol service hours from 127,410 to 141,692. Compton Station is centrally located in the Los Angeles area. The station is easily accessible from the (105) Century freeway to the north, the (91) Riverside/Artesia freeway to the south, the (110) Harbor freeway to the west, and the (710) Long Beach freeway to the east. Diane Walker, a 30-year veteran of the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, was promoted to the rank of Captain by Sheriff Lee Baca, and is now Commander of Compton Station.[22] There is also a LASD substation located in the Gateway Towne Center.[23]

City government controversies

Civic corruption has also been a widespread problem in Compton.[24] In the early 1990s, United States Attorney Joey Chin conducted a series of investigations, centered on a phony waste-to-energy scheme, that ultimately ensnared a number of prominent elected officials.

In 2000, the Compton Police Department was disbanded amidst controversy and charges of corruption. The police department claims it was disbanded after investigations of gang activity led to then-Compton Mayor Omar Bradley. Once this became public, the mayor charged it was the police who were themselves corrupt, and he disbanded the police department. Omar Bradley has since faced serious corruption charges.[25] Regardless of the situation, an alternative form of law enforcement was sought. Compton's policing needs are currently served by the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department.

Eric J. Perrodin, the city's former mayor, was investigated in 2007 by the California State Bar for threatening to violate a local newspaper's first amendment rights after the paper printed an investigative report relative to a contract granted to one of Perrodin's associates. Following the report, Perrodin threatened to yank the city's advertising contract with the paper[26] A Times review of city records shows Perrodin was absent from city board and commission meetings nearly two-thirds of the time between July 2009 and July 2010.[27]

Current recall efforts are a direct response from residents of the accusations of corruption of the city's mayor and council. Some of the accusations involve the issuing of city contracts to personal donors and friends. One particular accusation involved the trash and recycling contract of the city to Pacific Coast Waste and Recycling LLC in 2007,[28] whose leadership donated large amounts of money to Perrodin's political coffers.

Notices of intent to circulate recall petitions against four Compton city officials are expected to be filed in August 2010, by a group of citizens who claim corruption in Compton is being ignored by the same authorities who were shocked by the recent salary controversy in the city of Bell.[29]

Compton has discharged its city manager for the second time in three years. The Los Angeles Times says the City Council voted in a closed meeting, September 9, 2010, to fire Charles Evans. The Times says council members refused to discuss the reasons for their decision. Evans took office in 2007, after the dismissal of previous City Manager Barbara Kilroy. City Controller Willie Norfleet will take over until a permanent manager can be named.[27]

Crime

Compton's violent reputation was popularized in the late 1980s by the rise to prominence of local gangsta rap groups Compton's Most Wanted and especially N.W.A, who released the famous album Straight Outta Compton in 1988. The city used to be notorious for gang violence, primarily caused by the Bloods and Crips. Crime rates had been falling for years following the crack epidemic of the 1980s and early 1990s.

Crime, though present in lesser degrees beforehand, worsened significantly with the introduction of crack cocaine in the latter part of the 20th century. The neighborhood lost wealthy residents, with the worsening safety problems, and, after the 1992 riots in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, many African Americans left the city. Meanwhile, many Latino and other immigrant families moved into Compton, including Samoans, Tongans, Koreans, Filipinos, Belizeans and East Africans.[30]

During 2006, Compton deployed twice as many sheriff's deputies and the murder rate has steadily decreased in the last decade.[31] Recent reports show that Compton's violent crime rate has been reduced by 30% over the last ten years, and is continuing to be reduced.[32]

Although the U.S. News & World Report does not even list Compton in the "The 11 Most Dangerous Cities" for overall crime rates in the United States,[33] it contrasts the CQ Press, using data from the FBI's annual report of crime statistics "Crime in the United States 2010," ranked Compton as the 8th most dangerous city in the country.[34]

In 2010, Compton Station area homicides declined by about 38 percent, with 26 homicides in 2010, in comparison to the 42 homicides in 2009.[35] This number is a 53 percent decrease from five years ago, and was the lowest number of homicides since 1972. The sheriff's department reported: Taking into consideration the population changes, last year showed the lowest homicide rate since 1965. Property crimes also decreased.[35] These figures demonstrate a 67.2 percent decrease over the five-year period from 2005 to 2010.[36]

"Gifts for Guns"

From 1999 to 2004 Compton's murder rate averaged at around 49 murders per 100,000 annually. In 2005 the city experienced an almost 45% increase in murders, although the annual numbers had dropped significantly in the prior three years.[37] The Los Angeles Sheriff's Department began the annual "Gifts for Guns" program within that same year where the citizens of Compton were given the option to turn in firearms and receive a $50–$100 check for various goods [38] in an effort to combat gun violence. People have turned in about 7,000 guns over the last few years, KABC-TV reported. The program's success has prompted the LASD to expand the program county-wide.[23]

Geography

Compton is located at 33°53′48″N 118°13′30″W / 33.89667°N 118.22500°W / 33.89667; -118.22500 (33.8967, −118.2250).[39] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.1 square miles (26 km2). 10.0 square miles (26 km2) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) of it (1.03%) is water.

It is bordered by the unincorporated Willowbrook on the north and northwest, the unincorporated West Compton on the west, the city of Carson on the southwest, the unincorporated Rancho Dominguez on the south, the city of Long Beach on the southeast, the city of Paramount and the unincorporated East Compton on the east, and by the city of Lynwood on the northeast.

East Compton

East Compton, also known as East Rancho Dominguez, is a mostly industrial unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP). The population was 9,286 at the 2000 census [Citation Needed]. East Rancho Dominguez is an accepted city name according to the USPS, and shared the 90221 ZIP Code with Compton.[40] Its sphere of influence is the city of Compton, which has tried to annex East Rancho Dominguez, but business and property owners in the area have opposed the annexation.[41][42]

Demographics

2010

The 2010 United States Census[43] reported that Compton had a population of 96,455. The population density was 9,534.3 people per square mile (3,681.2/km²). The racial makeup of Compton was 24,942 (25.9%) White (0.8% Non-Hispanic White),[44] 31,688 (32.9%) African American, 655 (0.7%) Native American, 292 (0.3%) Asian, 718 (0.7%) Pacific Islander, 34,914 (36.2%) from other races, and 3,246 (3.4%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 62,669 persons (65.0%).

The Census reported that 95,700 people (99.2% of the population) lived in households, 643 (0.7%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 112 (0.1%) were institutionalized.

There were 23,062 households, out of which 13,376 (58.0%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 10,536 (45.7%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 6,373 (27.6%) had a female householder with no husband present, 2,354 (10.2%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,725 (7.5%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 158 (0.7%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,979 households (12.9%) were made up of individuals and 1,224 (5.3%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.15. There were 19,263 families (83.5% of all households); the average family size was 4.41.

The population was spread out with 31,945 people (33.1%) under the age of 18, 11,901 people (12.3%) aged 18 to 24, 26,573 people (27.5%) aged 25 to 44, 18,838 people (19.5%) aged 45 to 64, and 7,198 people (7.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28.0 years. For every 100 females there were 94.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.7 males.

There were 24,523 housing units at an average density of 2,424.0 per square mile (935.9/km²), of which 12,726 (55.2%) were owner-occupied, and 10,336 (44.8%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.9%; the rental vacancy rate was 5.9%. 53,525 people (55.5% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 42,175 people (43.7%) lived in rental housing units.

According to the 2010 United States Census, Compton has a median household income of $42,335, with 26.2% of the population living below the federal poverty line. [45]

Education

The city is served by Compton Unified School District.[46] The district is a participant of the FOCUS program conducted by the University of California, Irvine. The goals of the program are to improve mathematics and science achievement by uniting the efforts of mathematics, science, education and research library faculty and staff with educators of the school district.[47]

The CUSD provides public education for grades K–12. The district operates 24 elementary schools, eight middle schools, three high schools, and one adult school, which also serves as an alternative school. The district maintains five alternative learning schools.[46]

The three high schools that are part of CUSD, are Centennial High School, Dominguez High School, and Compton High School.[46]

The city is also served by El Camino College Compton Education Center, which offers community college courses for those planning to enter a four-year degree program, as well as those seeking further education in specific trade fields.[46]

Reed Christian College is a non-profit private institution, located in Compton. The program lasts for less than one year, and total enrollment is approximately 120 students.

The Compton Library offers adult, children's and Spanish language materials; reference services; a Literacy Center and a Homework Center; public computers with Internet access and word processing capabilities; public typewriters; and a bilingual story time every Saturday at 12:00 noon.[46]

Occidental's Center for Food and Justice and its Compton Farm-to-School project were featured in a segment of Life and Times, a half-hour news program on public television's KCET in Los Angeles.[48]

Barack Obama Charter School is a kindergarten through sixth grade public charter school.

Economy

Compton was recently designated as an “Entrepreneurial Hot Spot” by Cognetics, Inc., an independent economic research firm. Compton made the national list for best places to start and grow a business, and ranked #2 in Los Angeles County out of a field of 88 cities.[49] The city's Planning and Economic Development department provides a business assistance program consisting of a comprehensive mix of resources to small business owners and entrepreneurs. The grocery chains Ralphs and Food 4 Less, subsidiaries of Kroger, are headquartered in Compton.[50] Gelson's Market, a subsidiary of Arden Group, Inc., a holding company, is also based there. [51]

Compton is surrounded by multiple freeways which provide access to destinations throughout the region. The Long Beach and Los Angeles Ports are less than 20 minutes from downtown Compton, providing access to international destinations for customers and suppliers. The Alameda Corridor, a passageway for 25% of all U.S. waterborne international trade, runs directly through Compton from north to south.[52]

Gateway Towne Center

The Gateway Towne Center is a large power center and represents a new trend in investing in inner cities. Opened in October, 2007, it brought over 1,000 local jobs to the city and helped address a need for increased local services. The city's tax revenues have increased about 30% since the center's opening. Phase one of the mega-shopping center includes several big box retailers, several restaurants, banks, supply stores and fitness centers.[53]

Historical landmarks

"Angeles Abbey Cemetery" contains examples of Byzantine, Moorish and Spanish architectural style. The cemetery was built in 1923 and survived the 1933 Long Beach Earthquake.[54]

The "Compton Airport" opened on May 10, 1924. Located on Alondra Boulevard, the airport offers flight training, has accommodations for more than 200 planes, and is home to several aviation clubs.[54]

"Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial": This Civic Center monument is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. It is surrounded by the Civic Center, Compton Court House, Compton City Hall, and Compton Public Library.[54]

The "Eagle Tree" is a natural boundary marker of Rancho San Pedro dating back to 1858. It contains an historic marker and plaque placed by the Daughters of the Golden West in 1947.[54]

The "'Heritage House'" was built in 1869 and is a State Historic Landmark. The oldest house in Compton, it was restored as a tribute to early settlers. It serves as an important landmark of Compton's rich history. Located at the corner of Myrrh and Willowbrook near the Civic Center Plaza, the Heritage House is a rustic-looking home that will eventually house a museum detailing early life in Compton. For now it demarks the stark difference between the simple life of the 19th century and the fast-paced urban environment of the 21st century.[54]

"Woodlawn Cemetery" is the final resting place of 18 Civil War Veterans. It has been a Los Angeles County Historic Landmark since 1946.[54]

Transportation

Four freeways are in or near the city's boundaries and provide access to destinations throughout the region. Interstate 710 runs through the eastern boundary, State Route 91 runs through the southern boundary. Interstate 105 runs slightly along the north of the city, and Interstate 110 along to the west.

The Metro Blue Line light rail runs north–south through the city; Compton Station is in the heart of the city, adjacent to the Renaissance Shopping Center. The Blue Line connects Compton to downtown Los Angeles and downtown Long Beach.

There is also a Compton Renaissance Transit System that serves the local community.

Compton/Woodley Airport is a small general aviation airport located in the city. The airport lies within busy airspace, as it is situated within a few miles of both Los Angeles International Airport and Long Beach Airport.

Greyhound Lines operates the Compton Station.

Collectively, these multifaceted transportation links lend justification to the city's familiar name of "the Hub City."[52]

City sites

  • The Major League Baseball Academy is a youth baseball academy providing free baseball and softball instruction to Southern California youth.
  • Tomorrow's Aeronautical Museum is a non-traditional compilation of a living interactive museum, after-school programs, gang intervention programs and flight school.

Sister Cities

On January 19, 2010, the Compton City Council passed a resolution creating a sister cities[55] program to be managed as a chapter of the Compton Chamber of Commerce. The city has established partnerships with three cities:

The city is also looking to add sister partnerships with Yanga, Mexico and Port of Spain, Trinidad & Tobago.

See also


References

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  2. ^ U.S. Census
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  4. ^ "Compton city, California – Population Finder – American FactFinder". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2011-02-07. 
  5. ^ a b c "1 The Past | Departures". KCET. 2010-07-23. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  6. ^ Horne, Gerald (1997). Fire This Time: The Watts Uprising and the 1960s. New York, New York: Da Capo Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-306-80792-3. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "History of the City | About Compton". Comptoncity.org. 1933-03-10. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  8. ^ Scott, Allen John and Edward Soja (1996). The City: Los Angeles and Urban Theory at the End of the Twentieth Century Berkeley: University of California Press. 10.
  9. ^ John McWhorter (2005-08-15). "Outlook: The Negative Impact of the Watts Riots". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  10. ^ "Growing Pains of a Young City – City of Carson, CA". City of Carson. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  11. ^ "The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air: Information from". Answers.com. Retrieved 2010-08-30. 
  12. ^ "American Experience, George H. W. Bush". pbs.org. Retrieved 2008-06-12. 
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  14. ^ "Compton California (CA) Census and detailed community profile". AmericanTowns.com. Retrieved 2010-08-30. 
  15. ^ Compton CRicket Club
  16. ^ William A. Fischel Serrano and Proposition 13: Comment on Isaac Martin, "Does School Finance Litigation Cause Taxpayer Revolt", Dartmouth College, 2009
  17. ^ "South Health Center." Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. Retrieved on March 18, 2010.
  18. ^ "Post Office Location – COMPTON." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
  19. ^ "Post Office Location – HUB CITY." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
  20. ^ "Post Office Location – FASHION SQUARE." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
  21. ^ "Compton Station." Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department. Retrieved on January 21, 2010.
  22. ^ "Los Angeles County Sheriff's Dept. – Compton Station". La-sheriff.org. Retrieved 2010-08-30. 
  23. ^ a b Compton Sheriff's Station 2009 Year in review publication
  24. ^ "Popular Articles & Stories for October 25, 1990 – Los Angeles Times". The Los Angeles Times. 
  25. ^ Former Compton Mayor among Five Officials Arrested after Probe. BlackPressUSA
  26. ^ (District Attorney's Office Probing Prosecutor Over Alleged Threats. "Metropolitan News-Enterprise".
  27. ^ a b Compton council fires city manager again – KGPE CBS47 News, Sports & Weather for the Central Valley[dead link]
  28. ^ The Compton Bulletin Online – LOCAL NEWS[dead link]
  29. ^ By BETTY PLEASANT, Contributing Editor (2010-08-18). "Bottom Line: In Compton, recall paperwork soon to land on the desks of top city officials". Wavenewspapers.com. Retrieved 2010-08-30. 
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  31. ^ "Compton Profile | Compton CA | Population, Crime, Map". Idcide.com. Retrieved 2011-02-07. 
  32. ^ NBC News, 12-11-02
  33. ^ The 11 Most Dangerous Cities - US News and World Report
  34. ^ "AMSAFC2.WK4" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-07-31. 
  35. ^ a b Homicides Dip 16 Percent In Compton, LA County « CBS Los Angeles
  36. ^ Compton murder rate tumbles to 45-year low| Hub City Nitty Gritty
  37. ^ City-Data.com. City Data http://www.city-data.com/crime/crime-Compton-California.html |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  38. ^ Linthicum, Kate (2008-12-09). "Residents turn in guns in Compton – Los Angeles Times". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-08-12. 
  39. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  40. ^ ZIP Code Lookup
  41. ^ The Compton Bulletin Online – LOCAL NEWS. Web.archive.org (2007-10-08). Retrieved on 2011-02-10.
  42. ^ City of Carson SOI Update Resolution, March 8, 2006
  43. ^ All data are derived from the United States Census Bureau reports from the 2010 United States Census, and are accessible on-line here. The data on unmarried partnerships and same-sex married couples are from the Census report DEC_10_SF1_PCT15. All other housing and population data are from Census report DEC_10_DP_DPDP1. Both reports are viewable online or downloadable in a zip file containing a comma-delimited data file. The area data, from which densities are calculated, are available on-line here. Percentage totals may not add to 100% due to rounding. The Census Bureau defines families as a household containing one or more people related to the householder by birth, opposite-sex marriage, or adoption. People living in group quarters are tabulated by the Census Bureau as neither owners nor renters. For further details, see the text files accompanying the data files containing the Census reports mentioned above.
  44. ^ http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06/0615044.html.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  45. ^ http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06/0615044.html.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  46. ^ a b c d e "Education System | About Compton". Comptoncity.org. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  47. ^ FOCUS Program Participants. FOCUS at UCI
  48. ^ "Occidental College :: Oxy in the News". Oxy.edu. 2005-06-22. Retrieved 2011-02-07. 
  49. ^ "Compton Jobs (CA)". Simply Hired. Retrieved 2010-08-30. 
  50. ^ "Contact Us." Kroger. Retrieved on April 30, 2009.
  51. ^ Gelson's - About Gelson's
  52. ^ a b "Hub City | About Compton". Comptoncity.org. Retrieved 2010-08-30. 
  53. ^ "Gateway Towne Center". Gateway Towne Center. Retrieved 2011-02-07. 
  54. ^ a b c d e f "Heritage House | Historical Landmarks". Comptoncity.org. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  55. ^ "Sister Cities of Compton". comptonsistercities.org. Retrieved 2013-07-02. 

Further reading

External links